“Un Estado plural y justo”

I am reading an essay on democracy by Luis Villoro, a philosopher at the UNAM. He talks about three forms of democracy: communitarian, liberal, and republican. Very roughly, we moderns are in liberal democracy which excludes communitarian democracies and is further from republicanism than one might think.

Liberal democracy is homogenizing and individualistic, whereas the republican idea (from the Roman republic) has connections with communitarian forms of democracy. In republicanism one sacrifices individual interests to the common good, whereas in liberal democracy the freedom of the individual is given greater importance. We need to reform the liberal nation state in that sense.

That short summary is so poor as to be a distortion but I am leaving it there to remind myself of this essay.

In the same book there is also an essay on reason. This piece is important because it gives greater value to reasonableness than to rationality or certitude, and allows for multiple forms of rationality.

Villoro also makes an interesting comment on postmodernity in this essay. The problem with the Enlightenment project was not its interest in reason but its insistence on certainty. The postmoderns react by rejecting reason altogether and turning into desiring machines, or by becoming utterly conformist. The reasonable person, however, is a fourth type and does not reject reason but rather puts it at the service of life.


This entry was posted in Enlightenment, Postmodernism, Race, Subject Theory. Bookmark the permalink.

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