But which are good.
Andrews, George Reid. Afro-Latin America: The Late 1900s. This recaps all this excellent work on ALA and AA, up to 1994. Really authoritative piece.
—. Brazilian Racial Democracy, 1900-90: An American Counterpoint. Full of excellent historical information. Andrews rocks.
Gehman, Mary. The Mexico-Louisiana Creole Connection. Fascinating.
Gelpí, Juan. El discurso jerárquico en Cecilia Valdés. Good. Cites Sharon Romeo who says these antislavery novels were reformist texts proposing changes that would benefit whites. He makes my point: if you stop claiming it’s costumbrista, anti-esclavista, and so on, you find that it is Latin American because it participates in one of the first LA literary discourses: letrados quote clases populares looking down at them. There are legitimate and bastard children and the same goes for language.
Points out that Cecilia’s family represents the NON letter: they speaks cubano. Says the narrator is exposing hierarchies, but also teaching us how to think hierarchically — basically trains us in how to distinguish civilized and savage. Orality is irrational is savage. And physionomy reflects soul; it isn’t good to look grotesque and mestizaje causes it. THE NARRATOR IS RACIST AND NATIONALIST AT ONCE. And it is an anti-mestizaje novel (53). There’s a paralellism I hadn’t noticed before: Leonardo is stabbed in the nipple (parallel: Ma. de Regla). And at this time mulatos were NOT well looked upon. And he doesn’t look well upon them. AND on 53-54 is a great quotation about fear of mestizaje.
Note also that Cecilia is presented negatively, as are all the other Black people. And she keeps going around in the streets, which contaminate her (and which the novel is phobic about); also, she gets contaminated by drinking metaphorical water (so she’s in orality, which as we know is bad). So she’s the malign espejismo of Adela — even though she doesn’t speak in dialect and is pretty, she’s evil, and she ends up in a prison for prostitutes and then a mental institution, which is to say outside the national house.
This author, like me, says this novel is not a celebration of mestizaje and unidad nacional, and that it doesn’t fit into the Sommer narrative. Illegitimacy and mestizaje go together, and are written in the traces of Africanness one sees in faces, and so on. And it is illegitimacy that unites her with other persons of African descent in the novel. And that is what actually fits 19C ideas, anyway.
Piedra, José. Literary Whiteness and the Afro-Hispanic Difference. This, as we know, is my favorite article ever.
Racusen, Seth. The Ideology of the Brazilian Nation and the Brazilian Legal Theory of Racial Discrimination. Gives very useful background on how and why racism is considered a foreign problem.
Salper, Roberta. Gender and Ideology in Caribbean Narratives. Cecilia is voiceless. Has translation of “El Abuelo” from Keith Ellis’ book.