I gave a talk on this project called “Race and the Impact of the Letter” that ended with the concept of “seeing like a state.” How is this related? Should I call or subtitle my book “Race and Letters” or “Raza y letra” or something like that?
Nevertheless, the new Dual state is alive and well: a Normative State for the core populations of the capitalist center, and another State of arbitrary decrees for the non-citizens who are the rest. Unlike in classical fascism, this second State is only dimly visible from the first. The radical critique protesting that liberty within the Normative State is an illusion, although understandable, is erroneous. The denial of citizenship based not on exploitation, oppression and straightforward discrimination, but on mere exclusion and distance, is difficult to grasp, because the mental habits of liberation struggle for a more just redistribution of goods and powers are not applicable. The problem is not that the Normative State is becoming more authoritarian: rather, that it belongs only to a few.