… I found these notes, which means I am in fact going through my files.
Evangelization was done to get the Indians to internalize racism. There is a sermon of Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás (who wrote a grammar) Portocarrero cited on this; the Indians had sinned by not having been Christian. Even in the 18th century this discourse was presents. The Indians owed a DEBT for former idolatry, which they must pay through servitude. This is, of course, a corruption of actual Christian doctrine, and CODICIA and CRUELDAD were the greater sins.
At the end of the 18th century with secularization, religious justifications of racism wane and science is used instead. It is argued that races exist and descend from different primates. This argument was used to justify the colonization of AFRICA just as Christianity was used to justify the colonization of AMERICA. These ideas are central in Nazism as well (Portocarrero jumps in time here).
Because white was supposed to be the stronger color, whitening was supposed to “work,” so immigration was believed to be what could “save” Peru. González Prada criticized this idea. He said the true Peru was Andean, reality was Andean.
This conference was also where I found out about Jorge Bruce’s book Nos habíamos choleado tanto, which I still like. The seminar program has short articles by each presenter, including one by Bruce called “El afecto racial” which is a concept I like.
Racial affect, racial meaning, racial formation.