da Silva, Denise Ferreira.
Toward a Global Idea of Race
*** Guimaraes, Sergio Paulo. Tirando a Mascara. Ensaios sobre o Racismo no Brasil.
*** Hale, Charles R.
Neoliberal Multiculturalism
Jackson, Richard. Black Writers and Latin America. Begins with a discussion of Langston Hughes in Spain.
*** Hooker, Juliet. Theorizing Race in the Americas. Oxford UP 2017.
Professor Zero’s Library
***Portocarrero, Gonzalo. Racismo y mestizaje
Race, Culture, and Identity: Francophone West African and Caribbean Literature and Theory from Négritude to Créolité
Tillis, Antonio D. Manuel Zapata Olivella and the Darkening of Latin American Literature.
PMLA 123:5 (October 2008) Comparative Racializations: includes articles by Joshua Lund, Etienne Balibar, more; a series of essays on Omi and Winant and a series reflecting on the volume Race, Writing and Difference. I do not like to read PMLA because of the two-column format.

Exorcising Blackness: Historical and Literary Lynching and Burning Rituals
Frankenberg: Displacing Whiteness

Frankenberg: White Women, Race Matters

López, Ian Henry. White By Law.
Race-ing Representation: Voice, History, and Sexuality


Choledad Privada – nonacademic blog on choledad by an academic from the PUCP
Paroles d’Esclavage – live interviews of grandchildren of slaves in Martinique

Between Argentines and Arabs (on Sarmiento, fascinating sounding 2006 book)


15 Responses to Raza

  1. profacero says:

    In Tempo Social (Revista de sociologia da USP) 11:1 (1999) Guimaraes had an article: “Baianos e paulistas: duas ‘escolas’ de relacoes raciais?” It says different schools of thought, in different regions (where race was in fact received differently), came up with different understandings of race relations. Both focusd, however, not on the question of assimilation and integration of the Negro to democracy, but on the developmentalist and nationalist redefinition of the “Brazilian people” (he refers to studies made between 1937 and 1956).

    This would be an interesting article to read, to see how he distinguishes between the Brazilian and American models (which look similar, except that that I imagine he means Blackness gets nationalized in Brazil and not in the US).

    The Escola Livre de Sociologia e Politica (S. Paulo) in the 40s and 50s worked with Oracy Nogueira’s concept of “preconceito de marca.” IMPORTANT: they looked at race as a CULTURAL SYSTEM (that would be another reason it doesn’t go away).

  2. profacero says:

    See also the bibliography in this article on the visibility of racial conflict (“Tambem, olha a cor do individuo”). http://www.antropologia.com.br/arti/colab/vram2003/a13-lssilva.pdf

    The article is good too and points out that it was only possible to construct B as a racial paradise in comparison to the Jim Crow US or apartheid SA.

    But in B, social darwinism and whitening were supported; and ideas about racial inferiority were defended by intellectuals like Nina Rodrigues and fomented eugenicist practices. this “state racism” led the government to support initiatives to try to cure B of the problems of mestizaje, seen as causes of backwardness. Black people were considered to inherit faults biologically — they were naturally lazy, vicious, criminal, and so on.

  3. Iansan says:

    Patricia Williams seems to have a book called THE MICHAEL JACKSON EFFECT.

    Patricia Williams’ book believes in the possibility of extending liberty and justice to all — but shows that it has not happened yet and furthermore, that many white people believe it has, or believe the situation has been reverse … and that racial thinking is much more pervasive than people admit, or allow themselves to see.

    Does she attempt to explain why this is the case? I am not sure. The focus of the book — lectures for a general audience — seems to be to show that it is the case. But she does talk about self immolation and passing, the good reasons why people would want not to be Black, given all the trouble it entails. This is useful for thinking about Brazil.

  4. Iansan says:

    This fits more with nation but it goes with what I’m doing with race. A VERY important article.

    47, Winter 2001

    E-ISSN: 1534-5203 Print ISSN: 0882-4371

    DOI: 10.1353/cul.2001.0023

    Joshua Lund
    Barbarian Theorizing and the Limits of Latin American Exceptionalism
    Cultural Critique – 47, Winter 2001, pp. 54-90

    University of Minnesota Press

    Joshua Lund – Barbarian Theorizing and the Limits of Latin American Exceptionalism – Cultural Critique 47 Cultural Critique 47 (2001) 54-90 Barbarian Theorizing and the Limits of Latin American Exceptionalism Joshua Lund Two important concepts for Latin American(ist) cultural criticism define the focus of this essay: exceptionalism and Eurocentrism. The objective of my critique is to interrogate the limits of Latin American exceptionalism by placing it in dialectical tension with Eurocentrism. I aim to signal the ways in which exceptionalism as a mode of theorizing Latin American singularity — while ultimately a critical endeavor — tends to overlook its own symptomatic relationship with Eurocentrism, and thereby succumbs to the same problems that it identifies in Eurocentric discourse. Exceptionalism, I propose, is not simply a reaction to or result of external factors, such as Latin America’s marginalization from the construction of Western knowledge. It is also a symptom of the tenacity of Eurocentrism within Latin American(ist) criticism. Just as Eurocentrism elides the intellectual contribution of peripheral or subaltern cultures to the epistemological constitution of the so-called West, so does exceptionalism reach its limits by focusing attention upon this very issue. Left aside is the engagement with epistemologies uncommonly, if ever, taken seriously in the rarefied discourses of Western knowledge production. At stake then is the role of the…

    log in via a library and get it on Project Muse

  5. Iansan says:


    “Racial Democracy” in Literary Works: African-American and Afro-Brazilian Perspectives (Paperback)

    ~ Isabel C. R. Ferreira (Author)
    Product Description
    This book investigates the way in which African- American and Afro-Brazilian prose fictions perceive and critique the concept of “racial democracy” in Brazil. African-Americans view Brazil as a paradise to escape segregation and violence in the 1920s since Brazilian government exports this idea about the country. In the 1960s and 1970s, there is a change in their perspective as some African-Americans visit Brazil. They realize and question racial harmony as they conclude it is a veiled racism and disillusionment. Some Afro-Brazilian writers, at first, portrait Afro-Brazilian characters as oppressed and marginalized, but they are not fully aware of that since there has never been any institutionalized segregation. Later, in the 1960s and 1970s, Afro- Brazilians’ movements flourish, influenced by American’s movement, bringing self-awareness and a sense of identity to deconstruct the “myth of racial democracy.”
    About the Author
    Isabel C. R. Ferreira has been a professor at Universidade Federal do Tocantins, in Brazil, since 2009. She earned her Master’s and Doctoral degrees in Literature at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She taught Portuguese and Luso-Brazilian literature at the University of Oklahoma for two years.

  6. Iansan says:



    And this is Borderlands e-journal, and no this blog is not abandoned, and yes I am fixing it up although I have not finished doing so!

  7. Iansan says:

    And: revista CLAVE http://www.clave.org/menu.html (submit things there, too)

  8. Iansan says:

    Otto Rank, The Incest Theme in Literature and Legend

    * Hardcover: 664 pages
    * Publisher: The Johns Hopkins University Press (December 1, 1991)
    * Language: English
    * ISBN-10: 0801841763
    * ISBN-13: 978-0801841767

    This should be filed under colonialism, creolization and race, because incest has to do with all three.

  9. Z says:

    Consider CORNEJO’s idea of heterogeneity as opposed to other peoples’.

    Remember that hybridity DOES mean whiteness.

    In the 19th century, the PRIMITIVE was what was to be overcome. In the 20th century (with the avant-garde), the primitive is the NEW and is associated with PROGRESS.

    Note rhetorical strategies like this one: “I am not racist: I had a Black mistress and I have adopted and also employed her child.”

  10. Z says:

    * Repeat from Lorna Williams: in 19C Cuba/Spain, to be for intermarriage was to be for abolition. This is really important.

    * Learn more about the ESCALERA CONSPIRACY.

    * Note the debates on who is more or less racist — note the moral triumphalism in them, the way in which people are more interested in being right in the abstract than in looking at reality or seeing subtleties.

    * I always thought of the Latin American insistence on mestizo identities as an inability to accept difference. I do not think I am necessarily wrong and I also think that the “postethnic” view is this. All very “Western” (modernizing, male, and so on) in my view.

  11. Z says:

    FRAGMENTS from a conference in Gainesville in the early 90s:

    – My serious problem with this conference: the construction of the negro brasileiro as an object of study, but not as the subject of culture

    – Lusitanian “disorganization” means “Lusitanian mess”

    – Is it “dangerous” to idealize the Africanization of culture? Is such Africanization taking place? Are we fetichizing Africanness or African culture?

    – Cultural appropriation as a state project and as a project of the elites.

    – RISERIO’s book CARNAVAL IJEXA (this note was probably in relation to the “Africanization” of culture).

    – Hassenbalg: 1950-present: in terms of racial in/equality, Brazil and the U.S. inverted themselves. Question: how to promote non-discrimination without promoting “whitening”? The Movimento Negro Unificado uses white/black as two categories, but traditionally Brazilians describe themselves in terms of many color categories and as few as 1% call themselves “black.”

    – Harris: In the US you are Black if you have Black ancestors, but in Brazil it depends on how you look and what your class identity is. This is PRECONCEITO DE MARCA (Oracy Nogueira) as opposed to PRECONCEITO DE ORIGEM (the US model).

    – From about 1970 forward being Black in SSA was no longer considered negative. Were they returning to mythical “essences”? Blackness became a cultural alternative, yet Carnaval remained hierarchical (“o branco n. quer mistura”)

    – Good point: the myth of racial democracy places in the past the same event that the dream of whitening places in the future! And: both racial democracy and whitening are used as critera and prerequisites for modernization. To be light, or European, is to be modern, and we see this in places such as soap opera plots.

    – Soap opera plots explore and enact conflicts between tradition and modernization, by looking at different kinds of connections between people. In CORPO A CORPO it is the mixure of blood that makes the marriage (im)possible.

    – A man from NYU referred to “a incapacidade dos brasileiros de imitar.”

  12. Z says:


    This readings course will excavate the Afro-Hispanic literary traditions which in standard narratives of Spanish American literature are often subsumed in affirmations of assimilation and mixture. While the reading list includes some classic texts on Afro-Hispanic culture by authors who are not themselves part of the African diaspora, the diasporic authors are the principal focus of the course.

    The primary purpose of the course is discovery and reading in primary and secondary sources. With a view to the preparation of the M.A. comprehensive examination the student will prepare an annotated bibliography. This project will include a detailed introduction discussing themes and issues defined in the course of reading, and a well thought out conclusion indicating directions for future research.

    Following is a tentative list reference works, criticism and theory, and literary and filmic works to be considered. While many of the most canonical Afro-Hispanic writers are Caribbean, this course is designed to survey Afro-Hispanic writing throughout the Western hemisphere. The bibliography will also include a section on popular sources as well as resources for teaching. Themes to be considered include, but are not limited to: slavery, mestizaje, women writers, gender and LGBT studies, and religion.

    Beginning bibliography

    REFERENCE (*also to include specific works on Afro-Latin history and culture, e.g. palenques, maroon culture, music, art; the present list includes some journals, organizations, and teaching tools as well)

    Afro-Hispanic Review (journal)

    Afro-Latin Research Association (with link to its journal PALARA)

    Callaloo (journal; also covers writing of the African Americas in English and French)

    Cambridge History of African and Caribbean Literature (Section “Caribbean Literature in Spanish” and others)

    Interesting call for papers with useful bibliography: http://apaclassics.org/index.php/world_of_classics/lectures_full/cfp_panel_afro-latino_and_afro-hispanic_literature_and_classics/

    Teaching unit from ERIC (Federally funded, high quality teaching resources) to get hold of: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED348856&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED348856

    Tillis, A. Critical Perspectives on Afro-Latin Literature (Routledge, 2011) This is the book I would like us to buy.

    Williams, L. 1987 review of then new, now classic works by M. Harris, R. Jackson, W. Luis, useful contextual information.

    Woyingi’s African Diaspora Links Blog with a good list of Afro-Hispanic writers: http://woyingi.wordpress.com/african-diaspora-links/literature-from-the-black-african-diaspora/afro-latino-literature/


    Beane, Carol. A good person to know at Howard.

    Branche, Jerome. Everything he has.

    Jackson, Richard L. [Annotated bibliography from 1980 and numerous articles, in addition to the following books.]

    —. Black Writers in Latin America (U of New Mexico P, 1979)

    —. The Black Image in Latin American Literature (U of New Mexico P, 1976)

    —. Black Literature and Humanism in Latin America (U of Georgia P, 2008)

    Luis, William. Key scholar on Cuban literature and antislavery narrative.

    Piedra, José. “Literary Whiteness and the Afro-Hispanic Difference.” NLH 1987. This seminal piece and anything else by Piedra (look at his footnotes).

    Tillis, Antonio. Manuel Zapata Olivella and the “Darkening” of Latin American Literature (2005).

    Williams, Lorna V. Has good work on Guillén, antislavery narrative, gender.


    Barnet, Miguel. Biografía de un cimarrón

    Bolívar, Simón. “Discurso ante el congreso de Angostura.” (1819)

    Cabrera, Lydia. Cuentos negros de Cuba and other works.

    Carpentier, Alejo. El reino de este mundo including the famous preface about lo real maravilloso.

    Guillén, Nicolás.

    Gutiérrez Alea, Tomás. La última cena.

    Estupiñán Bass, Nelson.

    Martí, José. “Nuestra América.” (1891)

    Morejón, Nancy.

    Novás Calvo, Lino. Pedro Blanco, el negrero.

    Rivera Aybar. El reino de Mandinga.

    Suárez y Romero. Francisco and film, El otro Francisco.

    Vasconcelos, José. La raza cósmica.

    Villaverde, Cirilo. Cecilia Valdés.

    Zapata Olivella, Manuel. Las claves mágicas de America: raza, clase, cultura. Barcelona: Plaza & Janes, 1989.

  13. Z says:

    Consider criticism of the heterogeneity theory, which exists now … along the lines of, it is one more attempt to talk about mixture in L.A., so the question really is, notice how dealing with mestizaje, or mestizaje and identity, is still primary even if one is writing to reject the conservative version of the mestizaje paradigm.

  14. Pingback: New course raza y palabra 1486-present — Spanish 492 | Cultural Identities, Postcolonial Theories

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